Whites or blacks, lamps or tree, fresh or dried, who have not yet heard of this so appreciated the fruit of the USA? There are figs in Figueiras and one of the times indicated to plant the tree.
The Figueira (Ficus L.) is one of the fruit trees characteristic of the Mediterranean region. In our country, the cultivation of the Figueira is very old and dates back to the time of the invasion of the Iberian Peninsula by the Arabs, which were of the first people to cultivate this plant. The Figueira is distributed from north to south of the country, with more expression in the Algarve, brings them-hills, especially in the region of the Bragança, and in certain areas of Alentejo and Ribatejo.
Figs may present different shades, but the most usual is the “white”, with different shades of skin ranging from the greenish to the yellowish, and the “blacks”, with tonnes more or less violaceous on to blacks. When figs grow in branches of the previous year and their maturation occurs by the end of June/early July, they are figs lamps; In turn, when fruiting in branches of the year and maturation occurs from August until the first rains, are figs tree. There are varieties that produce only one of these types (Uníferas), while others produce figs lamps and tree.
Figs can be consumed in fresh or dried. The frescoes are very rich in water (about 80% of their weight), provide 70 kcal for each 100 g and are an important source of some vitamins (a, C and B6), carotenes, folic acid, fibers, potassium, iron, calcium, and phosphorus.
If you enjoy these fruits, why not plant a fig tree in your garden, backyard or other space you have? Here are some suggestions.
Where to get a fig tree?
The fig tree multiplies by the stake. In nurseries and gardening centers you can find figs of different varieties. Choose a variety of Portuguese origin and preferably regional, which is well adapted locally and helps preserve our heritage. If you like white figs, the “ping-honey” variety, for your tastes and flavor, is one of the most appreciated, but you can also opt for the “regional white”, “Maia”, “Princess”, “White drunkard”, among others. If you prefer black figs, choose between “Lampa black”, “regional black”, “drunken black” or “traditional Borrasota”, depending on the region.
When and how to plant?
The best time is in September/October or March/April, depending on the region in which it is located, in order to evade the risk of frost, a phenomenon to which the plant is very sensitive.
When choosing the place to plant the tree, be aware that the Figueira enjoys deep, well drained and low acid soils. Although well adapted to warm and dry climates, it is sensitive to water shortage. Make a pit where it fits the roots, put in some manure and insert the plant. Cover the pit and start talking the earth around you and drizzle abundantly.
What maintenance do you need?
It’s an easy-to-fit tree, but extremely sensitive to the frosts of winter endings and early spring. It should fertilize with a compound fertilizer, preferably organic, but not excessive because it compromises the quality of the fruits. Water during the summer.
Pruning should be slight and correct the tendency that branches must fall towards the soil with the weight of the fruits. On the other hand, if you want to have figs, you can not forget that your fruition occurs in the branches of the previous year, so you should not be all to be recounted.
We must be careful with fungal diseases that may arise, such as anthracnose, applying a fungicide, when necessary. In the end of winter, it is usually the application of Bordeaux syrup or other copper-based product. From among the pests attacking the fig tree, the fruit fly, the fig black fly and the cochineal of the Fig tree are the main ones, justifying the application of an insecticide whenever necessary. CAUTION: If you apply any pesticides, do not forget to respect the indicated doses and the safety intervals so that you can eat safe and healthy figs.
Some applications in traditional medicine
In June and July, you can catch a healthy fig leaf, dry them in the shade and then you can use them to make infusions, to which they are recognized Anti-helmínticas properties, and are also used in treating dermatitis and hemorrhoids. The fruits have been attributed to Anti-tússicas, Anti-carcinogénicas and the treatment of diarrhea. The latex, which drips when the leaf or green fruits are highlighted, is used in treating warts and dermatitis.